The official name: Tbilisi
Location: Tbilisi is located in Eastern Georgia, on the shore of river Mtkvari
Geographic coordinates: 41 43' degrees E and 44 48' degrees N.
Area: 200 sq. km.
Population: 1 225 000 (Georgians 66 %, Armenians 12%, Russians 10%, Kurds 2%, others 7%)
Population density: 7 730 people/km2
Authority: Tbilisi is governed by two major bodies: Tbilisi City hall and Tbilisi Council (Sakrebulo). Mayor of Tbilisi - Gigi Ugulava, Chairman of Council - Zaal Samadashvili
Administrative divisions: 6 districts - Old Tbilisi, Vake-Saburtalo, Didube-Chugureti, Gldani-Nadza-ladevi, Isani-Samgori, Didgori
Calling code: 32
To the north, Tbilisi is bounded by the Saguramo range, to the east and south-east by the Iori plain, to the south and west by various endings (sub-ranges) of the Trialeti range. The city rises in terraces from both banks of the river Mtkvari, which is the main hydrological artery of the city.
Attitude of the river bottom within the city is 200m above the sea level.
The climate of Tbilisi is transitional from humid subtropical to relatively mild continental. Average annual temperature in Tbilisi is 12,7°C. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 0,9°C. The warmest month is July with an average temperature of 24°C and max 40°C. April and May are wet with frequent sudden heavy downpours. The climate of Tbilisi is healthy and useful.
In general, the best time to visit is from mid April through October, when days are warm or hot. The climate varies considerably from east to west. No matter when you go, be sure to take along a sweater for the cool evenings.
For a three-day weather forecast in Georgia, dial weather bureau 43 95 31.
Even better watch the weather report on the morning and evening TV news.
Two towers in Tbilisi look at each other across the river Mtkvari - they are Metekhi and Narikala. Even a little stone can retell about the heroic history of the city.
Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, is one of the most ancient cities of the world (until 1936 year the city was called Tiflis). Tbilisi was called so because of hot sulphur springs (Georgian "tbili" means "warm").
This surprisingly picturesque city submits at first sight. It has an image of harmonically incorporated ancient and modern times. Next to the streets, which have modern European view, with fashion buildings, beautiful shops can see narrow and winding streets, oriental alleys and little squares.
According to the archeologists the settlement of this area is dated with 3-4 centuries A.D. The earliest written reference about Tbilisi relates to the second-half of the fourth century, when Iran strengthened its political influence in the eastern part of Georgia.
During the long period Tbilisi suffered many Invasions, but still it arose from ashes. Forty times Tbilisi yielded to the devastating enemy invasions, during which its population was destroyed, kings palaces and dwellings of simple towns people were burnt, treasures plundered, the priceless monuments of Georgian culture were destroyed. But the city has never been inclined before the hordes of conquerors and each time arose from the ruins and the ashes even more excellent.
- From 5th-6th c. - Located strategically in the heart of the Caucasus between Europe and Asia, Tbilisi became an object of rivalry among, for the region's various powers such as Persia, The Byzantine Empire, Arabia and the Seljuk Turks. The Persians took over Tbilisi and ruled it for about a decade.
- The beginning of the 6th c. - the political center of Kartli moves from Mtskheta to Tbilisi.
- 6th c. - the beginning of the Georgian King's, The Bagrations dynasty.
- 7th c. - Arabian conquerors. The Arabian Emir stayed in Tbilisi.
- 10th c. - Tbilisi did not subordinate to the Emir caliphate.
- 1122 - the king David Agmashenebeli (The Builder) took the former capital of Kartli into his subordination. He made Tbilisi the capital of a unified Georgian State.
- 12th c. - Tbilisi became the political and cultural center in Georgia and in whole Caucasus. This period is called Tbilisi's "Golden Age"
- 13th c. - Tbilisi is under the Mongols domination.
- The first half of the 14th c. - during the times of George Brtskinvale, Tbilisi started its renewal.
- The 50-ies of the 15th c. and the 16th c. - the evolution process of Tbilisi was broken by the Turk-Osmans and Iranian conquerors.
- 17th -18th cc. - the peaceful epoch. Tbilisi is one of the beautiful cities in the East.
- The end of the 18th c. - a printing-house, a book depository and public schools were founded.
- In 1755 - the Academy of philosophy was founded.
- In 1801 - the king of Russia united Georgia and the whole of Caucasus under his domination. Tbilisi became the administration center of that region and the military base of the Russian Empire in the nearest East.
- From 60-70-ies of the 19th c. - the new age began in the history of Tbilisi and Georgia. The serfdom was abolished. The railway connected Tbilisi with the Caucasus and Russia cities, the Black Sea and Caspian Sea ports. The large and small factories appeared in the city.
- On the 26th of May, 1918 - Georgia was announced the independent republic.
- On the 25th of February,1921 the Soviet Government was established.
- Since 1991 - Tbilisi is the capital of independent Georgia.
- 1993-2003 - Shevardnadze Eduard Era
- 2003 - In November the parliamentary elections were rigged and street riots and civil disobedience began. In November 23, 2003 Shevardnadze retired. The event of November was called "Rose Revolution".
- 2004 January - the most part of the population voted for Mikheil Saakashvili, who is the president of Georgia now.
- 2004 - Since that, Tbilisi has experienced considerably more stability, decreasing crime rates, improving economy, and a booming tourist industry.
- 2007 - In November 2007, after the mass protests, which were organized by the opposition parties, the early presidential elections were appointed.
- 2008 January - Mikheil Saakashvili was elected president of Georgia for a second term